2017 Political Survey

Answer the following questions to see how your beliefs match each political party.

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What are your beliefs on social issues?

Should India create a one-child policy in order to control population growth? Learn more?

The one-child policy is a form of family planning (currently used in China) to control population growth. Fines are given to families with more than one child and exceptions are given, allowing two children if a parent is an only child.  See public opinion

Should India drastically increase punishment for domestic violence and crimes against women? Learn more?

The Thomson Reuters Foundation survey says that India is the fourth most dangerous place in the world for women to live in. Women belonging to any class, caste or creed and religion can be victims of acid throwing, a cruel form of violence and disfigurement, a premeditated crime intended to kill or maim the woman permanently and act as a lesson to 'put her in her place'.  See public opinion

Do you support the death penalty? Learn more?

Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. Since the year 2000 71 of 1,617 prisoners sentenced to death have been executed.  See public opinion

Should the government ban cultural ceremonies that involve the killing of animals for entertainment?

Should businesses be required to have women on their board of directors? Learn more?

In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. The International Labour Organization ranked India 120 out of 131 countries for female labor participation in 2013. 25% of women in India are active in the workforce, a lower rate than that of Cuba, Bangladesh and Somalia. Female literacy stands at 54% in India, more than 21 percentage points behind that of males. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.  See public opinion

Should women be allowed to wear a Niqāb, or face veil, to civic ceremonies? Learn more?

Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. There are no laws in India which ban burqas. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.  See public opinion

What is your stance on abortion? Learn more?

Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. In India abortion is only available to women who have been raped, whose pregnancy poses a risk to their health or there is a risk that the child will be born with a severe handicap. The procedure is only allowed within the first twenty weeks of pregnancy.  See public opinion

Should gay couples have the same adoption rights as straight couples? Learn more?

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.  See public opinion

Should the military allow women to serve in combat roles? Learn more?

In 2016 India announced that women will be allowed to occupy combat roles in all sections of its army, navy and air force, indicating a radical move to gender parity in one of the world's most-male dominated professions.  Proponents argue that it will help the military retain more women, who tend to leave the services permanently when they have children. Opponents argue that allowing women to serve in these roles would limit the military's ability to fight in combat situations.  See public opinion

Do you support the legalisation of same sex marriage? Learn more?

On June 26, 2015 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the denial of marriage licenses violated the Due Process and the Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. The ruling made same sex marriage legal in all 50 U.S. States.  See public opinion

Should India decriminalise homosexuality? Learn more?

India's current policy on gay sex states: Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on environmental issues?

Should the government increase environmental regulations on businesses to reduce carbon emissions? Learn more?

Global warming, or climate change, is an increase in the earth's atmospheric temperature since the late nineteenth century. In politics, the debate over global warming is centered on whether this increase in temperature is due to greenhouse gas emissions or is the result of a natural pattern in the earth's temperature. India is the world's third biggest greenhouse gas emitter, has pledged to source 40% of its electricity from renewable and other low-carbon sources by 2030.  See public opinion

Should disposable products (such as plastic cups, plates, and cutlery) that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material be banned? Learn more?

In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.  See public opinion

Do you support the use of genetically engineered crops and foods? Learn more?

Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. The release of transgenic crops in India is governed by the Indian Environment Protection Act, which was enacted in 1986. India regulators cleared the Bt brinjal, a genetically modified eggplant, for commercialisation in October 2009. Following opposition from some scientists, farmers and environmental groups a moratorium was imposed on its release in February 2010  See public opinion

Should cities be allowed to offer private companies economic incentives to relocate? Learn more?

In November 2018 the online e-commerce company Amazon announced it would be building a second headquarters in New York City and Arlington, VA. The announcement came a year after the company announced it would accept proposals from any North American city who wanted to host the headquarters. Amazon said the company could invest over $5 billion and the offices would create up to 50,000 high paying jobs. More than 200 cities applied and offered Amazon millions of dollars in economic incentives and tax breaks. For the New York City headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $2.8 billion in tax credits and construction grants. For the Arlington, VA headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $500 million in tax breaks. Opponents argue that governments should spend the tax revenue on public projects instead and that the federal government should pass laws banning tax incentives. The European Union has strict laws which prevent member cities from bidding against each other with state aid (tax incentives) in an effort to lure private companies. Proponents argue that the jobs and tax revenue created by the companies eventually offset the cost of any awarded incentives.  See public opinion

Do you support the use of hydraulic fracking to extract oil and natural gas resources? Learn more?

Fracking is the process of extracting oil or natural gas from shale rock. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which fractures the rock and allows the oil or gas to flow out to a well. Fracking is not occurring in India yet. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that India has 96.4 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of unproven, technically recoverable shale gas. While fracking has significantly boosted oil production, there are environmental concerns that the process is contaminating groundwater. Critics of fracking say it pollutes underground water supplies with chemicals, releases methane gas into the atmosphere, and can cause seismic activity. Proponents of fracking say it will drop oil and gas prices in Spain and lead to energy independence.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on economic issues?

Should the government increase taxes on private business?

Should the government raise the national minimum wage? Learn more?

The federal minimum wage is the lowest wage at which employers may pay their employees. The minimum wages are set according to Minimum Wages Act, 1948 and vary from 150 rupees ($2.40) per day in Bihar to 361 rupees ($5.80) per day in Delhi. State governments set a separate minimum wage for agricultural workers.  See public opinion

Should the government make cuts to public spending in order to reduce the national debt? Learn more?

Proponents of deficit reduction argue that governments who do not control budget deficits and debt are at risk of losing their ability to borrow money at affordable rates. Opponents of deficit reduction argue that government spending would increase demand for goods and services and help avert a dangerous fall into deflation, a downward spiral in wages and prices that can cripple an economy for years.  See public opinion

Should India raise taxes on the rich? Learn more?

Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.  See public opinion

Should citizens be allowed to save or invest their money in offshore bank accounts? Learn more?

An offshore (or foreign) bank account is a bank account you have outside of your country of residence. The benefits of an offshore bank account include tax reduction, privacy, currency diversification, asset protection from lawsuits, and reducing your political risk.  See public opinion

Should VAT rates be increased or decreased?

Should bankers’ bonuses be capped at 100% of their pay? Learn more?

n 2014 the EU passed legislation that capped bankers’ bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on banker’s pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank’s costs to rise.  See public opinion

Should India abolish the inheritance tax? Learn more?

The inheritance tax is a tax on money and possessions you pass on when you die. A certain amount can be passed on tax-free, which is called the "tax-free allowance" or "nil rate band". The current tax-free allowance is £325,000 which has not changed since 2011 and is fixed at that rate until at least 2017. The inheritance tax is an emotionally charged issue as it comes up during a time of loss and mourning.  See public opinion

Should welfare recipients be tested for drugs? Learn more?

5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. India does not currently test welfare recipients for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.  See public opinion

Do you believe labor unions help or hurt the economy? Learn more?

Trade unions in India have experienced tremendous growth in the past five years. The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC), affiliated to the Congress party, has emerged as the biggest of the seven central trade unions, with a membership of 33.3 million.  See public opinion

Should pension payments be increased for retired government workers? Learn more?

A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners. In 2016 retired central government employees will now get a minimum pension of Rs 9,000. This is an increase of up to 157.14 per cent from the current Rs 3,500.  See public opinion

Should the government use economic stimulus to aid the country during times of recession? Learn more?

An economic stimulus is a monetary or fiscal policy enacted by governments with the intent of stabilizing their economies during a fiscal crisis. The policies include an increase in government spending on infrastructure, tax cuts and lowering interest rates. In 2015 the Indian government introduced a 1.5 trillion rupee stimulus that will be spent on roads and railways.  See public opinion

Should the government raise or lower the tax rate for corporations? Learn more?

India currently levies a 35% tax on all businesses. The average corporate tax rate worldwide is 22.6%. Opponents of argue that raising the rate will discourage foreign investment and hurt the economy. Proponents argue that the profits corporations generate should be taxed just like citizen's taxes.  See public opinion

Should there be fewer or more restrictions on current welfare benefits? Learn more?

In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.  See public opinion

Should the government classify Bitcoin as a legal currency? Learn more?

Bitcoin is a type of digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank. Bitcoins are stored in a digital wallet, which is like a virtual bank account that allows users to send or receive bitcoins and pay for goods or services. Bitcoin is anonymous, meaning that, while transactions are recorded in a public log, the names of buyers and sellers are never revealed.  See public opinion

Should India reduce income taxes on the wealthy in an effort to reduce black money? Learn more?

Black money refers to money that is not fully legitimately the property of the 'owner'. A white paper on black money in India by the Government of India suggests two possible sources of black money in India. The first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism, and corruption, all of which are illegal in India. The second, more likely source is that the wealth may have been generated through a lawful activity but accumulated by failing to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit financial flows across international borders, such as deposits in tax haven countries. According to a 2010 The Hindu article, unofficial estimates indicate that Indians had over US$1456 billion in black money stored in Swiss banks (approximately USD 1.4 trillion).  See public opinion

Should the government use incentives or punishment as a means to bring black money back to India? Learn more?

Black money refers to money that is not fully legitimately the property of the 'owner'. A white paper on black money in India by the Government of India suggests two possible sources of black money in India. The first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism, and corruption, all of which are illegal in India. The second, more likely source is that the wealth may have been generated through a lawful activity but accumulated by failing to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit financial flows across international borders, such as deposits in tax haven countries. According to a 2010 The Hindu article, unofficial estimates indicate that Indians had over US$1456 billion in black money stored in Swiss banks (approximately USD 1.4 trillion).  See public opinion

Should the government guarantee wage employment to every low income household? Learn more?

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian law that aims to guarantee the 'right to work' and ensure livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The statute is hailed by the government as "the largest and most ambitious social security and public works programme in the world". The more comprehensive survey of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India, a ‘Supreme Audit Institution’ defined in Article 148 of the Constitution of India, reports serious lapses in implementation of the act.  See public opinion

Should India allow foreign countries to transfer their military production to India? Learn more?

India's current limit on foreign direct investment for defense manufacturing is 26%.  See public opinion

Should the government add or increase tariffs on products imported into the country? Learn more?

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.  See public opinion

Should India allow international retail chains such as Wal-Mart and Tesco more or less entry into India?

Do you support a universal basic income program? Learn more?

A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.  See public opinion

Should the government provide tax incentives to private companies to keep jobs within the country?

What are your beliefs on domestic policy issues?

Should internet service providers be allowed to speed up access to popular websites (that pay higher rates) at the expense of slowing down access to less popular websites (that pay lower rates)? Learn more?

Net neutrality is the principle that internet service providers should treat all data on the internet equally.  See public opinion

Should it be illegal to burn the Indian flag? Learn more?

Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.  See public opinion

Are you in favour of decriminalising drug use? Learn more?

The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Bill, 1985 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 23 August 1985. It was passed by both the Houses of Parliament and it was assented by the President on 16 September 1985. Under the NDPS Act, it is illegal for a person to produce/manufacture/cultivate, possess, sell, purchase, transport, store, and/or consume any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance.  See public opinion

Should the government increase video surveillance in public places?

Should the government be able to monitor phone calls and emails? Learn more?

In 2008 the Indian parliament passed the Information Technology Act of 2008 which gave the government fiat power to tap all communications without a court order or a warrant. Section 69 authorizes the government to intercept, monitor or decrypt any information generated, transmitted, received or stored in any computer resource deemed necessary.  See public opinion

Should there be term limits for members of Parliament? Learn more?

A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. In India there are no term limits on the office of the President. The Prime Minister and Parliament must be re-elected every five years.  See public opinion

Should government workers be allowed to strike?

Should India allow religion based political parties? Learn more?

A well known accusation that Indian political parties make for their rivals is that they play vote bank politics, meaning give political support to issues for the sole purpose of gaining the votes of members of a particular community. Both the Congress Party and the BJP have been accused of exploiting the people by indulging in vote bank politics.  See public opinion

Should Jammu and Kashmir be granted special autonomous status? Learn more?

Article 370 of the Indian constitution is a law that grants special autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir. According to this Article, except for defence, foreign affairs, finance and communications, the Parliament needs the state government's concurrence for applying all other laws. Thus the state's residents live under a separate set of laws, including those related to citizenship, ownership of property, and fundamental rights, as compared to other Indians. As a result of this provision, Indian citizens from other states can not purchase land or property in Jammu & Kashmir. Under Article 370, the Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state. It can declare emergency in the state only in case of war or external aggression. The Union government can therefore not declare emergency on grounds of internal disturbance or imminent danger unless it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the state government.  See public opinion

Do you support the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh? Learn more?

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 commonly called Telangana Bill is an Act of Indian Parliament proclaiming the bifurcation of the Andhra Pradesh state into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh. The Act consists of all aspects of division of assets and liabilities, finalise the boundaries of the proposed new states and status of Hyderabad. The Bill was rejected by Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly on January 30, 2014.  See public opinion

Do you support the Jan Lokpal bill which would create an independent organization to investigate corruption of government employees? Learn more?

The Jan Lokpal Bill, also referred to as the Citizen's Ombudsman Bill, is an anti-corruption bill drafted and drawn up by civil society activists in India seeking the appointment of a Jan Lokpal, an independent body to investigate corruption cases. The Jan Lokpal Bill aims to effectively deter corruption, compensate citizen grievances, and protect whistle-blowers. The prefix Jan (translation: citizens) signifies that these improvements include inputs provided by "ordinary citizens" through an activist-driven, non-governmental public consultation.  See public opinion

Should India give all poor households the right to homestead? Learn more?

According to the National Land Reforms Policy, more than 31% of households in the country are landless. Almost 30% own less than 0.4 hectares, meaning 60% of the population owns only 5% of the country’s land. The National Right to Homestead Bill of 2013 aims to ensure that every shelterless poor family has a right to hold homestead of not less than 10 cents within a period of 10 years commencing from the date of notification. Government employees, landowners, income tax payers are all exempt  See public opinion

Do you support caste based reservation? Learn more?

Reservation in India is the process of setting aside a certain percentage of seats (vacancies) in government institutions for members of backward and under-represented communities (defined primarily by caste and tribe). Reservation is a form of quota-based affirmative action. Reservation is governed by constitutional laws, statutory laws, and local rules and regulations. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservation policies under the Constitution – with the object of ensuring a "level" playing field.  See public opinion

Should a third of all seats in parliament be reserved for women?

Do you support caste based reservation in the private sector?

Should regional parties be allowed to contest Parliament elections?

Should the government regulate social media sites, as a means to prevent fake news and misinformation? Learn more?

In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”  See public opinion

Should Indian voters be able to exercise the "None of the Above" (NOTA) option for candidates?

Should teachers be allowed to carry guns at school?

Should the government pass laws which protect whistleblowers?

What are your beliefs on healthcare issues?

Should the government prioritise lowering the cost of healthcare or improving the quality?

Should there be more or less privatisation of hospital and healthcare services? Learn more?

The private healthcare sector is responsible for the majority of healthcare in India. Most healthcare expenses are paid out of pocket by patients and their families, rather than through insurance.  See public opinion

Should there be more public or private involvement in healthcare?

Do you support the legalisation of Marijuana? Learn more?

Marijuana is currently illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in Ireland. People caught possessing small amounts of marijuana may receive 6 months of imprisonment and a fine of 10,000 Rs. Those in possession of large amounts of marijuana may be charged with trafficking and sentenced to long prison terms.  See public opinion

Do you support a single-payer healthcare system? Learn more?

Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.  See public opinion

Should the government guarantee the legal right to food for two-thirds of the population? Learn more?

The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013 (also Right to Food Act), was signed into law September 12, 2013, retroactive to July 5, 2013. This law aims to provide subsidised food grains to approximately two thirds of India's 1.2 billion people. Under the provisions of the bill, beneficiaries are to be able to purchase 5 kilograms per eligible person per month of cereals at the following prices: rice at INR3 (4.9¢ US) per kg; wheat at INR2 (3.3¢ US) per kg; coarse grains (millet) at INR1 (1.6¢ US) per kg. Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and certain categories of children are eligible for daily free meals. The bill has been highly controversial. It was introduced into India's parliament in December 2012, promulgated as a presidential ordinance on July 5, 2013, and enacted into law in August 2013.  See public opinion

Should the government increase funding for mental health research and treatment?

Should cities open drug “safe havens” where people who are addicted to illegal drugs can use them under the supervision of medical professionals? Learn more?

In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on criminal issues?

Should convicted criminals have the right to vote? Learn more?

Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. Prisoners cannot vote while in jail in India but can vote when they are released (even if they are convicted of a felony.)  See public opinion

Should drug traffickers receive the death penalty? Learn more?

Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).  See public opinion

Should non-violent prisoners be released from jail in order to reduce overcrowding?

Should the government hire private companies to run prisons? Learn more?

Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. There are currently no private prisons in India. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on foreign policy issues?

Should every 18 year old citizen be required to provide at least one year of military service? Learn more?

Military Service is currently not required in India. India has never required military service under British rule or since it gained independence in 1947. In WWII the Indian Army became the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size. And it has since maintained the world's third largest army and the world's largest all volunteer army.  See public opinion

Should India increase or decrease its amount of military weapons? Learn more?

India ranks #8 in the world for military expenditures, spending $46B or 2.5% of GDP per year.  See public opinion

Should India accept refugees from Syria? Learn more?

President Obama recently declared that the U.S. will accept 10,000 refugees from Syria. The U.S. has been under pressure from its Syrian allies to help out with the crisis in which 3 Million refugees have fled Syria in the past year. Those in favour of accepting refugees believe that the U.S. has a duty to join its allies in Europe and accept at least 10,000 refugees. Opponents argue that the U.S. should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into our borders.  See public opinion

Should the government increase or decrease military spending? Learn more?

In the global ranking of military budgets India currently ranks #6 with an annual budget of 2.47 lakh crore. India's military budget is #7 in military spending as a measured percentage of GDP (2.3%).  See public opinion

Should India increase or decrease foreign aid spending? Learn more?

The budget reveals that the Indian government’s foreign aid expenditures will reach $1.3 billion in 2014-15 — more than double New Delhi’s anticipated net foreign aid receipts of $655 million that financial year. New Delhi’s foreign aid spending has been rising steadily since 2009-10. Between 2013-14 and 2014-15, Indian foreign aid expenditures are slated to increase by 18 percent.  See public opinion

If Pakistan attacks, should the government respond with devastating force?

Should the government take a stronger position against Chinese influence in the region?

What are your beliefs on infrastructure issues?

Should India increase the use of private international firms to build infrastructure?

What are your beliefs on electoral issues?

Should a politician, who has been formerly convicted of a crime, be allowed to run for office? Learn more?

The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.  See public opinion

Should corporations, unions, and non-profit organizations be allowed to donate to political parties?

Should foreigners, currently residing in India, have the right to vote? Learn more?

In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.  See public opinion

Should political candidates be required to release their recent tax returns to the public? Learn more?

A tax return is a document which states how much income an individual or entity reported to the government. In India these documents are considered private and are not released to the public. The Elections Commission of India does not require individuals running for public offices to release them. In Sweden, Norway and Finland citizen’s and candidate’s tax records are considered public information and are published on the internet.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on education issues?

Should the government provide all citizens with a free of charge education?

Should tuition at public universities be free?

What are your beliefs on immigration issues?

Should Muslim immigrants be banned from entering the country until the government improves its ability to screen out potential terrorists?

Should immigrants be required to pass a citizenship test to demonstrate a basic understanding of our country’s language, history, and government? Learn more?

The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.  See public opinion

Should immigrants to India be allowed to hold dual citizenship status? Learn more?

Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.  See public opinion

Should immigrants be deported if they commit a serious crime? Learn more?

In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.  See public opinion

Should there be a temporary ban on all immigration into India?

Should India increase or decrease the amount of temporary work visas given to high-skilled immigrant workers? Learn more?

Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.  See public opinion

Should immigrants be required to learn the Indian language?

What are your beliefs on transportation issues?

Should the government invest in building a high speed rail?

Should the government increase spending on public transportation?

What are your beliefs on science issues?

Should the government require children to be vaccinated for preventable diseases? Learn more?

In January 2014, 102 measles cases linked to an outbreak at Disneyland were reported in 14 states. The outbreak alarmed the CDC, which declared the disease eliminated in the U.S. in the year 2000. Many health officials have tied the outbreak to the rising number of unvaccinated children under the age of 12. Proponents of a mandate argue that vaccines are necessary in order to insure herd immunity against preventable diseases. Herd immunity protects people who are unable to get vaccines due to their age or health condition. Opponents of a mandate believe the government should not be able to decide which vaccines their children should receive. Some opponents also believe there is a link between vaccinations and autism and vaccinating their children will have destructive consequences on their early childhood development.  See public opinion

Do you support the use of nuclear energy? Learn more?

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. By 2050 25% of India's power will be produced by nuclear power. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.  See public opinion

What are your beliefs on religious issues?

Should the government pay for the construction of the Ram Temple at Ayodhya?

Should the government eliminate codes that protect the culture of minority groups?

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